November 6-9, 2018
Ocean salinity is a key parameter that links various elements of the water cycle to ocean circulation dynamics and climate. Through the advent of innovative observing technologies, salinity research has gained much attention over recent years, leading to a rapidly-growing list of new insights. This conference brought together communities working on many aspects of ocean salinity, including in situ and satellite observations, numerical models, and data assimilation. Recent results and future work were also discussed.Meeting Summary
Documents: 45Kerr, Y.H. and Lambin, J.
[06-Nov-18]. This presentation outlines the history, current state, and funding of ocean-observing satellite missions supported by the Centre National d'Édudes Spatiales (CNES). CNES missions include SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity), launched in 2009; current operations have been extended to 2019 and beyond. CFOSAT (China-France Oceanography SATellite, a joint mission of CNES and the China National Space Administrate, launched in October 2018), and two potential missions (SMOS-HR and CIMR) are discussed along with programmatic details (potential partnering, funding, an L-band radiometer long-term program, and lobbying efforts). Rainville, L., Shilling, G., et al.
[07-Nov-18]. In SPURS-2, the use of autonomous platforms enabled the capture of many different events (persistence), which is essential to link the different scales important for the water cycle. Seagliders were used to adaptively sample rainfall events, using satellite and local information for deployment. In addition to measuring the water column, gliders are equipped with a passive acoustic sensor to provide direct estimates of in situ
rain rate and wind speed. Martin, M., King, R., While, J., and Aguilar, A.
[07-Nov-18]. The UK Met Office ocean forecasting system (FOAM - Forecasting Ocean Assimilation Model) runs once per day and produces analyses and 6-day forecasts of the 3D ocean and sea-ice. There is a need to assimilate sea surface salinity (SSS) data because the Argo salinity coverage is limited, and the current model has large areas where there are precipitation and river inputs. The freshwater imbalances can affect other model outputs (sea surface height, circulation). The assimilation of daily satellite SSS from SMOS, Aquarius and SMAP were implemented and assessed during the 2015-2016 El Niño. The largest reduction in error was from the combination of SMOS and SMAP. The assimilation also led to improvements in temperature and sea surface height outputs in the Central Equatorial Pacific. The continuity of satellite salinity measurements would help the case for operational implementation, and more in situ
data would greatly improve the bias correction and impact of the assimilated satellite data. Chaitanya, A.V.S., d'Ovidio, F., Lengaigne, M., Vialard, J., Papa, F., and Riotte, J.
[08-Nov-18]. This work examines how the Bay of Bengal circulation redistributes localized freshwater inputs into the Northeastern portion of the bay during the monsoon season. Previous work has revealed that eddy stirring may play a large role in this re-distribution. The seasonal cycle and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) may also affect these patterns. Rain was found to dominate the freshwater distribution, except for areas near estuaries in December of the study year. The Ganges was found to contribute 40-60% of the freshwater along the east coast of India. Effects from rain dominate the interior of the Bay of Bengal, with most local rain remaining in the north and being input in the southern region. Using a Lagrangian approach may help to quantify the relative roles of eddies, the IOD and seasonal circulation. Akhil, V.P., Vialard, J., Lengaigne, M., Keerthi, M.G., Vergely, J-L., and Boutin, J.
[06-Nov-18]. Modelling and fishermen's accounts have long suggested that the Ganges-Brahmaputra plume forms a "river in the sea", which is advected southward by the East India Coastal Current following the monsoon and modulated by the Indian Ocean Dipole. Eight years of SMOS data coupled with Aquarius observations confirm this phenomenon, although the period of measurement is still too short to identify the signature of Ganges-Brahmaputra interannual variability. Regan, H., Lique, C., and Armitage, T.
[09-Nov-18]. The Arctic Basin stores a large amount of freshwater and most of this storage occurs in the Beaufort Gyre, a wind-driven ocean current located in the western part of the Arctic Ocean. In situ
measurements show that the gyre has increased in size, intensified, and shifted northwest since 2003. The objectives of this study are to characterize the time and space variability of the gyre and the roles of atmospheric forcing and bathymetric interaction. Kilic, L., Prigent, C., Aires, F., Boutin, J., Heygster, G., Donlon, C., and the CIMR Team
[09-Nov-18]. The Copernicus Imaging Microwave Radiometer (CIMR) mission is a high priority candidate mission within the European Copernicus Expansion program for all-weather, high spatial resolution and accurate estimation of ocean and sea-ice parameters. The conically scanning microwave radiometer imager includes channels at 1.4, 6.9, 10.65, 18.7, and 36.5 GHz and will operate in a Sun-synchronous polar orbit to provide sea surface temperature, sea ice concentration, sea surface salinity, ocean wind speed, and sea ice thickness on a sub-daily coverage. Friedman, A.R., Reverdin, G., Chafik, L., Holliday, N.P., Szekely, T., Valdimarsson, H., and Yashayaev, I.
[08-Nov-18]. Sea Surface Salinity integrates evaporation, precipitation and runoff. Together, salinity and temperature determine density, driving ocean circulation. The North Atlantic Subpolar Gyre is particularly important for vertical exchange and deepwater formation, and may influence the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC). Presented here is a long-term dataset of North Atlantic SSS, SST and surface density from 1896-2015 known as BINS. BINS generally compares favorably with hydrographic profiles and gridded datasets, with some exceptions. BINS is able to resolve small-scale patterns, including the freshening in the central Subpolar Gyre and Labrador Sea, and warming in the Gulf Stream extension. Interannual variability was found to be greatest in the Labrador sea, where the contribution of salinity to density variability is the strongest. Misra, S., Bosch-Lluis, J., Latham, B., Felten, C., Ogut, M., Brown, S., Lee, T., and Yueh, S.
[09-Nov-18]. The technology needs for a future salinity mission require wider bandwidths, spectrometer capabilities, multi-functionality, and multi bands. In this presentation, the authors look to raise technology levels and concepts by demonstrating 1) a satellite-based, real-time RFI processing capability to detect and remove unwanted RFI signals (CubeRRT), 2) a multi-functional / multi-band system, and 3) the feasibility of wide-band operation. ten Doeschate, A. and Ward, B.
[07-Nov-18]. Rain can have a variety of effects on the ocean, including freshening of the surface, stratification of the near-surface layer, changing the heat and momentum fluxes, or changing the turbulent mixing properties of the near-surface layer. The vertical variability can be measured in high resolution with the Air-Sea Interaction Profiler (ASIP). A rain-induced near-surface stratification was observed by ASIP in the mid-latitude North Atlantic during a deployment in 2011. Hoareau, N., Portabella, M., Lin, W., Ballabrera-Poy, J., and Turtle, A.
[06-Nov-18]. Satellite salinity measurements provide unprecedented spatiotemporal resolution / coverage as compared to any other observation system (Argo, CTD, TSG, moored buoys, etc.). This study focuses on the validation of SMOS-BEC and Aquarius v4 Level 3 products using triple collocation analysis. Fournier, S., Lee, T., Steele, M., Wang, X., Fukimoril, I., Kwok, R., and Wang, O.
[09-Nov-18]. Salinity observations are important to studying Arctic Ocean freshwater changes and transport, as well as ocean-ice interaction, and synergistic use of satellite observations can enhance monitoring of these changes. In this study, the authors compare three different sea surface salinity (SSS) products (BEC SMOS, JPL SMAP and REMSS SMAP), evaluate the extent to which satellite SSS can serve as a proxy for freshwater changes in the ice-free Arctic Ocean, and explore the potential of using sea surface height (from satellite altimetry) and ocean bottom pressure (from satellite gravimeter) to evaluate satellite SSS. Drushka, K., Asher, B., Iyer, S., Thompson, E., Jessup, A., and Clark, D.
[07-Nov-18]. The Surface Salinity Profiler (SSP), sometimes referred to as a salinity snake, was used during the SPURS-2 cruise to quantify the instantaneous response of the ocean to rainfall. During the 2016 and 2017 SPURS-2 cruises, the SSP was deployed during approximately 40 rain events. This presentation illustrates the rain rate, wind speed, salinity and dissipation rate for several distinct rain events, and examines the relationship between existing stratification and the dissipation rate of rainfall events. Brown, S., Misra, S., Lee, T., and Yueh, S.
[09-Nov-18]. The future of NASA's L-band mission falls into competed programs, necessitating innovative designs to maintain continuity. In this presentation, the author looks at Salinity mission enhancements, which are realizable with recent technology advancements in areas such as spectral radiometry. Spectral measurements (0.6-3.0 GHz) would replace the single L-band channel and allow for unconstrained, simultaneous retrieval of sea surface temperature, sea surface salinity, and wind speed with the added benefits of dynamic spatial resolution, measurement of sea ice thickness in the range of 0-1m, deeper penetration into soil / vegetation for soil moisture measurements, and the detection and removal of RFI in space. Trade studies are also planned to evaluate concepts with program constraints: partnerships will likely be required. The incorporation of a spectrometer instrument into the CIMR observatory may be possible. Tranchant, B., Remy, E., Greiner, E., and Legalloudec, O.
[07-Nov-18]. The objective of the SMOS NINO15 project was to assess and analyze the onset and evolution of the 2015-16 El Niño event. The work involved refining the Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment requirements for sea surface salinity after the analysis of the errors associated with the experiments. The work involved the production of a coordinated observing system experiment from two different operational global ocean forecasting systems by the use of SSS Bias correction and SSS data assimilation (including SMOS, Aquarius and SMAP data). Keerthi, M.G., Lengaigne, M., Vialard, J., and Benshilla, R.
[07-Nov-18]. Seasonal monsoons drive the climate of the Northern Indian Ocean. In the summer, there are strong southwesterly winds and heavy rainfall, and in the winter, there are cold and dry northeasterly winds with less precipitation. These seasonally reversing monsoon winds are responsible for reversing their circulation; the East Indian Coastal Current (EICC) flows either Northward or Southward. Horizontal salinity gradients were found to contribute up to 40% of the EICC intensity following the summer monsoon. Salinity gradients also enhance the mesoscale variability by up to 30% in the Western Bay of Bengal. The EICC was found to create conditions to form a freshwater "river in the sea" that creates a gradient that strengthens the EICC. Skliris, N., Zika, J.D., Blaker, A., Nurser, G., Marsh, R., and Joey, S.A.
[08-Nov-18]. The conventional wisdom regarding the effect of warming on the water cycle is that wet areas may get wetter and the dry areas will be drier. This could lead to more drought and more floods. Salinity observations with high spatiotemporal coverage over the last decades offer a unique opportunity in terms of measuring the integrated effect of changes in the water cycle. Numerical simulations show that the surface salinity pattern amplifies substantially with anomalous surface warming. Approximately 45% of observed surface salinity pattern amplification over 1958-2017 can be explained by ocean warming and 15% by ice mass loss. The remaining signal (~40%) can be attributed to a water cycle amplification of 3.6% (±2.1) per degree of surface warming. There is potential for water cycle changes to be monitored using surface salinity observations if these surface warming effects are appropriately accounted for. Hasson, A., Farrar, T., Boutin, J., Bingham, F., and Lee, T.
[07-Nov-18]. SMOS, SMAP and Aquarius are useful tools to study large mesoscale features, and results are shown to be coherent with other parameters. Studying the coherence between SMOS, SMAP and Aquarius reduces the
effect of noise and non-physical artifacts. Budgets computed using the Zonal-wavenumber-frequency coherence
amplitude can reveal processes associated with propagating features. Boutin, J. and Reversion, G.
[06-Nov-18]. This presentation provides the context and history of salinity science meetings, as well as major mission milestones in remote sensing of sea surface salinity (SSS). There have been a broad range of approaches to measure salinity, and new techniques and instruments have been developed to further our understanding of SSS and its effect on the ocean. Highlights from previous meetings about salinity science (beginning in 2013) are provided, as well as goals for the current meeting. Silvy, Y., Guilyardi, E., Durack, P.J., and Sallée, J-B.
[08-Nov-18]. There have been structures in salinity change in the ocean interior over the last decades. These changes can be attributed, in part, to human activity, and in particular to carbon dioxide emissions. Using models to constrain missing observations was found to be promising for identifying these changes through time. Many regions, however, will need more years or decades of direct observation to detect the impact of human influences. Zhou, Y., Lang, R., Dinnat, E., and Le Vine, D.
[06-Nov-18]. New L-Band measurements of the dielectric constant of seawater at 1.413 GHz have been completed, leading to a small increase in the accuracy of the GW model function at low temperatures. These new measurements (at 34 and 36 PSU) have been incorporated into the model function, which is now more consistent between differing salinities. Tony, L., Fournier, S., Gordon, A., and Sprintall, J.
[08-Nov-18]. The Maritime Continent is a "chokepoint" of global ocean circulations, with the Indonesian throughflow affecting the ocean and climate. The sea surface salinity in the Maritime Continent affects the vertical structure in the Indonesian through flow, which influences the Indo-Pacific exchanges. Understanding this region is important for climate, but it has been poorly sampled by ARGO and other in situ
instrumentation. Recent advances in salinity remote sensing since have provided a new ability to fill the knowledge gaps in this important area. SMAP was able to provide an unprecedented capability to monitor the sea surface salinity in the Maritime Continent region. A seasonal freshwater "plug" was observed that exists in both the boreal winter and boreal spring. Overall, the observations point to the Maritime Continent water cycle as being an important regulator and low-latitude checkpoint of global ocean circulation. Khvorostyanov, D., Boutin, J., Vergely, J.L., and Thouvenin-Masson, C.
[06-Nov-18]. The CATDS Salinity Expertise Center
focuses on the remote sensing of sea surface salinity, and particularly, the scientific algorithm development and data exploitation of ESA's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite mission. In this presentation, the authors compare SMOS CATDS salinities with in situ
(ARGO OI, TARA) and SMAP products. Estella-Perez, V., Mignot, J., Guilyardi, E., and Swingedouw. D.
[07-Nov-18]. Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) contributes to northward heat transport in the Atlantic, and is the primary means of heat and carbon transport from the surface to the deep ocean. This study investigates the use of sea surface salinity and sea surface temperature data to reconstruct past climate conditions in the AMOC.
Relationship Between Sea Surface Salinity and pC02Ho, D.
[07-Nov-18]. Mesoscale eddies were first observed in the Eastern Tropical Pacific in 1977 by an infrared sensor. However these eddies rapidly lose their temperature and chlorophyll signal as they evolve, limiting their study. SMOS, SMAP and Aquarius are useful tools to study these large mesoscale features, and the results have been shown to be coherent with other parameters. Studying the coherence between SMOS, SMAP and Aquarius reduces the effect of noise and non-physical artifacts. This study demonstrates that the variability in salinity in eddies observed in the Northeast Tropical Pacific is due to horizontal advection, and includes an export of continental water to the center of the basin.Levang, S. and Schmitt, R.
[08-Nov-18]. The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) is a large system of ocean currents that carries warm water from the tropics northward into the North Atlantic. As the climate warms, there are predicted to be changes in the amount of freshwater input into the North Atlantic. Subpolar precipitation and ice melt are likely to increase, and the subtropical Atlantic will become saltier. This talk examines the exchange rate between subtropical and subpolar waters, and whether or not climate models support the predicted changes the AMOC from climate change. Vinogradova Shiffer, N.
[06-Nov-18]. Once each decade, NASA and its partners look 10 years into the future to prioritize research areas. In this presentation, the author discusses upcoming NASA Ocean Salinity Science Team opportunities, OceanObs'19 (an international, community-driven conference for communicating the decadal progress of ocean observing networks and charting innovate solutions to societal needs), the scientific and application drivers for satellite salinity, opportunities for integration, and the need for continuity and enhancement in the years ahead. Awo, M., Alory, G., Da-Allada, C., Delcroix, T., Jouanno, J., and Baloïtcha1 E.
[07-Nov-18]. In the tropical Atlantic, sea surface temperature and surface winds are affected by seasonal weather modes that bring changes to winds, currents, and temperature patterns. Both modes affect the amount of precipitation that falls in the region, and should be observable in the sea surface salinity signal. The salinity observations of were compared to model data of time periods in each mode, to determine their level of agreement and to investigate the processes responsible for the observed signatures. SMOS satellite data were able to identify the signature of these interannual climatic modes, and may be useful in filling gaps in where in situ
data are not available. Grodsky, S.A., Vandemark, D., Feng, H., and Levin, J.
[06-Nov-18]. Satellite salinity from the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission and in situ
observations were used to diagnose the source of a significant increase in warm and salty surface water entering the Gulf of Maine in the winter of 2017-2018. SMAP salinity anomaly data indicate that this event was related to a salty feature that moved along the northwestern Atlantic shelf break from near the Grand Banks southwest towards the Gulf of Maine over eight months before entering the Gulf in December 2017 to January 2018. Future work will focus on modeling and data synthesis to understand the dynamics of this particular intrusion and quantify the role of Gulf Stream meanders. Guimbard, S., Reul, N., Herlédan, S., Hanna, Z.E.K., Piollé, J-F., Paul, F., and Sabia, R.
[06-Nov-18]. The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission was launched on November 2, 2009 as the second Earth Explorer Opportunity mission within ESA's Living Plant Program. It has been providing brightness temperature data in L-Band continuously since January 2010, which are used to retrieve soil moisture and sea surface salinity data over land and ocean, respectively. This presentation provides a status of the Pilot Mission Exploitation Platform (Pi-MEP), which focusses on ESA's SMOS mission and supports enhanced validation and scientific process studies over the ocean. Olmedo, E., Campuzano, F., Turiel, A., Oliveira, P.B., and Angélici, M.M.
[07-Nov-18]. The LAMBDA project aims to improve the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service's Monitoring Forecast Centers thermohaline circulation models in coastal areas. This will be accomplished through better characterizing the land-marine boundary conditions, with special attention to salinity, and through watershed numerical modeling and coupling it to mesoscale regional ocean models. This talk looks at SMOS salinity data compared to model data in the Mediterranean Sea. Overall, the model and SMOS are in good agreement of the major features of the salinity dynamics, though SMOS does not capture the variability present in coastal pixels and can be affected by RFI. Future work will focus on improving the SMOS coastal data and and strengthening the mode's land-marine boundary conditions. Bingham, F.
[09-Nov-18]. How large is the variability of sea surface salinity (SSS) within the footprint of a satellite like Aquarius or SMAP? How do we quantify differences between in situ
and remotely sensed estimates of SSS due to variability within the satellite footprint? What are the space/time scales of SSS variability? In this presentation the author addresses these questions using data obtained from the SPURS-1 and 2 field campaigns. Richards, K., Melnichenko, O., and Jia, Y.
[07-Nov-18]. The Madden-Julian oscillation is the largest element of the intraseasonal (30- to 90-day) variability in the tropical atmosphere. Freshwater plays an important role in stratifying the upper ocean in the Indo-Pacific warm pool and along the thermocline ridge. Salinity and sea surface temperature measurements can provide insight into the formation of fresh and warm layers in these cycles, helping to determine their relative importance for atmospheric interactions in the region. Morrow, R. and Kestenare, E.
[09-Nov-18]. Continuous sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface salinity (SSS) measurements have been collected onboard a supply ship between Tasmania and Dumont D'Urville, Antarctica as part of the SURVOSTRAL program (Surveillance de l'Océan Austral) since 1992. The ship makes 6-10 repeat sections per year during the warming, melting cycle (October to March) in the Sea Ice Zone south of 60°S near 140°E. In this presentation, the authors describe observed changes in SST and SSS since 1992, the presence of three distinct phases of interannual SSS and sea-ice variations, and the implications of the 2010 Mertz Glacier Tongue calving. Clayson, C.A., Edson, J., and Farrar, T.
[07-Nov-18]. The SPURS-2 cruise aimed to study the fate of freshwater (precipitation) in the Intertropical Convergence Zone. Both in situ
and atmospheric observations allowed for an examination of the fluxes between the atmosphere and ocean. This work investigates the relationships between surface forcing of freshwater and heat in creating salinity, temperature and turbulence profiles, and how larger-scale atmospheric conditions may play a role in surface salinity variability. Akhoudas, C., Sallée, J.B., and Reverdin, G.
[09-Nov-18]. The freshwater cycle of the Southern Ocean is pivotal for Earth's climate, but is poorly observed and understood. In this study, the authors examine the Southeastern Waddell Sea, a major site for deep water formation. Oxygen and deuterium isotope data, acquired from in situ
sampling during the 2017 WAPITI project cruise, have shed new light on ocean-ice interaction, circulation, and the freshwater cycle. Schanze, J.J., Springer, S.R., Lagerloef, G.S.E., and Thompson, E.J.
[07-Nov-18]. The Salinity Snake measures salinity at 1-2 cm depth and was deployed during the SPURS-2 campaign in the tropical western Pacific in 2016 and 2017. 20,000 km of measurements were taken over two months using the Salinity Snake, which collected data at a range of wind speeds. There is a very good match-up between the Salinity Snake data and SMAP. Models can be used to simulate the variety of freshwater lenses encountered during SPURS-2, which could be used to classify surface freshening events based on their signature. Overall, the Salinity Snake has collected more than 40,000 km of very-near surface salinity data, averaging .07 g/kg difference between 5 meters and the surface in the Intertropical Convergence Zone. Meissner, T., Wentz, F., and Manaster, A.
[06-Nov-18]. This presentation provides an overview of the RSS SMAP Version 3 (V3) Release, which includes several significant upgrades over previous RSS V2 SMAP SSS products. Schmitt, R.
[08-Nov-18]. Watersheds produce flooding when extra water is added to the system, and that precipitation must come from a source outside of the watershed itself. Because a majority of evaporation occurs over the ocean, it follows that the extra moisture originates there. Since the flood waters freshen the ocean, the conservation of salt tells us that there must have been high salinity anomalies that preceded the heavy rains. This talk discusses the success of using salinity variability to predict rainfall on land. The use of Neural Networks, trained on historical sea surface salinity and temperature data, were used to create predictions of rainfall in the U.S. Southwest. Yueh, S., Tang, W., Fore, A., Hayashi, A., Misra, S., and Peng, J.
[09-Nov-18]. The SMAP mesh antenna contributes some emissivity to the retrieval of sea surface salinity (SSS) data. Just how much emissivity is important to quantify, as a small difference in emissivity can contribute to a large variance in salinity. A reanalysis of Version 3 and Version 4 data using the JPL Geophysical Model Function revealed a small change in the reflector loss compared to pre-launch measurements and model. This change is reflected in the JPL SMAP Version 4.2 SSS product. Asher, W., Drushka, K., Jessup, A., and Clark, D.
[07-Nov-18]. There are now a variety of in situ
and remote instruments used to measure salinity. However, these instruments measure different depth ranges, from the satellites measuring the top skin of the ocean surface to moorings and autonomous vehicles that can sample over a range of depths. To connect what is occurring at the surface to depth, it is crucial to understand the variability and vertical gradients affecting these measurements. Both a vertical gradient and horizontal variability are observable in salinity and temperature measurements. These gradients are wind-speed dependent, so the effect is also dependent on latitude. M. Oltmanns, M., Karstensen, J., Moore, G.W.K., and Josey, S.A.
[08-Nov-18]. The atmospheric response to increased sea surface temperature (SST) implies that there could be a positive feedback that can support its persistence across seasons. Freshwater influences the mixed layer depth by strengthening stratification. This can affect the SST and, in turn, have impacts on large-scale atmospheric dynamics. The SST anomalies that propagate throughout the year can intensify through reemergence and atmospheric feedbacks. Thus, a cooling signal could persist beneath the surface during summer and amplify in subsequent winters. This has been observed when fresher years are followed by an increase in storms, more heat loss and cold air advection. After fresh years, there is an enhanced mixing along cold currents, and reduced mixing along the warm currents. Increased future fretting could trigger stormier and colder winters without necessarily requiring a decrease in deep convection. Liu, H.
[08-Nov-18]. On a seasonal time scale, there are three "modes" of the barrier layer in the equatorial Pacific. The modes are closely associated with transition, resurgence and onset of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). During the Eastern Pacific El Niño, an abnormally thick boundary layer appears east of the dateline, shifting and propagating towards the central Pacific. During the Central Pacific El Niño, the thick boundary layer is confined between 160 and 180 degrees, but without significant west-east displacement. In contrast to the Eastern Pacific events, it does not appear to propagate at a basin-scale. Supply, A., Boutin, J., Reverdin, G., Vergely, J-L., Bellenger, H., Katsumata, M., and Reul, N.
[06-Nov-18]. SMOS and SMAP satellite salinity are strongly influenced by rainfall, exhibiting a clear link between instantaneous rain rate (RR) and sea surface salinity (SSS) anomalies. In this presentation, the authors look at 1) the imprint of RR history on SSS freshening, 2) how SSS freshening and instantaneous RR depend on the RR product, and 3) the influence of wind speed on the relationship between SSS freshening and RR. Mecklenburg, S.
[06-Nov-18]. SMOS is an ESA Explorer Opportunity science mission, a technology demonstration satellite project in ESA's Living Planet Program. After nine years in orbit, SMOS continues to successfully demonstrate observations of sea surface salinity for a large variety of scientific and operational applications. User community feedback supports L-Band continuity and the mission extension review through 2021 remains ongoing with no limiting factors anticipated. What comes next?